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2018

Fusion, Failure, Fatality: Long-term Outcomes After Surgical Versus Nonoperative Management of Type II Odontoid Fracture in Octogenarians.

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Fusion, Failure, Fatality: Long-term Outcomes After Surgical Versus Nonoperative Management of Type II Odontoid Fracture in Octogenarians.

World Neurosurg. 2018 Feb;110:e484-e489

Authors: Perry A, Graffeo CS, Carlstrom LP, Chang W, Mallory GW, Puffer RC, Clarke MJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Type II odontoid fracture is a highly morbid injury among octogenarians, with 41% 1-year mortality. Our objective was to assess long-term fusion, complication, and survival rates.
METHODS: Retrospective review of prospective trauma registry and blinded review of follow-up radiographs.
RESULTS: Follow-up cohort included 94 nonoperative and 17 operative patients (median, 52 and 79 months). The operative group had significantly higher rates of repeated surgery for primary treatment failure or complication (1% vs. 18%; P = 0.01) and dysphagia, aspiration events, or tracheostomy (29% vs. 78%, P = 0.002; 6% vs. 30%, P = 0.04; 1% vs. 18%, P = 0.01). Three-year all-cause mortalities were 71% and 76%, respectively (P = 0.78). No delayed myelopathy was observed. One-year postinjury radiographs were available for 13 and 6 patients in the nonoperative and operative groups (P = 0.9); bony union was observed in 3 and 5 patients (23% vs. 83%; P = 0.04). Retrolisthesis greater than 2 mm was observed in 2 and 1 patients (15% vs. 17%; P = 1.0). Two patients in the operative group underwent repeated surgery for primary treatment failure. Dysphagia was diagnosed in 3 and 5 operative patients (23% vs. 83%; P = 0.04), whereas aspiration events occurred in 0 and 3 patients (0% vs. 50%; P = 0.02). Three-year mortalities in this cohort were 38% and 67% (P = 0.35).
CONCLUSIONS: Radiographic union is significantly associated with operative management, but the corresponding clinical benefit is unclear. Complications were significantly more common after surgery. Long-term survival in octogenarians following type II odontoid fracture is poor, independent of management. Frequent complications without a proven survival benefit suggest that most patients are better managed conservatively.

PMID: 29155062 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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